• Professional learning communities (PLCs) have begun to emerge in South Africa. Due to school closures, teachers attempted to stay in touch with learners, especially where the available technologies allow for this. Teachers also might use this time to catch up on their professional development.

  • OER Africa aims to provide a home for all African OER courseware. Its focus has been on Agriculture, Foundation Skills, Health and Teacher education where a wealth of OER course materials have been developed for the African context.National Open University of Nigeria, OpenCourseWare is a repository of available digital course materials from the National Open University of Nigeria on many university-level courses. It allows students to download the course manual or guide.


  • The National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL), India is a platform providing online resources on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics initiated by the seven Indian Institutes of Technology, together with the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.

  • SWAYAM, India is a programme initiated by the Government of India to achieve three cardinal principles of Education Policy, namely access, equity and quality. The platform offers university and school-level courses on a range of subjects with video lecture, reading material, self-assessment tests and online discussion forum.


  • Virtual University of Pakistan, OpenCourseWare provides course material that is made freely available through broadcast television, DVDs, and YouTube and is extensively used by students and faculty members formally and informally. All courses in VU have now been published on this open courseware site.


  • The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) has issued guidelines in connection with the prevention of the COVID-19 among universities including the provision of online learning for students. And left it to the administrators of State Colleges and Universities (SUCs) to plan for and implement online lessons.

  • Online platforms like RareJob Philippines provides online learning for students.


  • Universities in Thailand have begun to move their classes online to help limit the spread of the COVID-19 in the country. The move is in line with an instruction by the Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Research and Innovation.

  • Online communication apps (e.g., WhatsApp) are used to enable communication between teachers and students and among students in many countries.